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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and most other westernized nations. It is well recognized that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease have limited predictive utility in the identification of new cardiovascular disease cases and outcomes. Thus, investigators have argued that application of a biopsychosocial research paradigm in this field may be of particular utility in understanding cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Accordingly, a subdiscipline within the field of behavioral medicine cardiovascular behavioral medicine examines interrelations among biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors in cardiovascular health and disease.

In 1989, Schneiderman and colleagues published a seminal work entitled "Research Methods in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine." Since that time, there has been an exponential increase in the amount and scope of work in this topic area, but no similar edited volume has been undertaken. Here we propose to create a compendium of work in the field of cardiovascular behavioral medicine, the purposes of which are to summarize research in this area, promote multidisciplinary research and clinical practice, and encourage researchers and clinicians to consider all relevant facets of the disease process in their evaluation and study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and outcomes.

In this volume, we propose several sections. Section I will provide an overview of basic cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, cardiovascular disease classification, and application of the biopsychosocial model to the study of cardiovascular disease. Section II will cover sociodemographic, behavioral, psychosocial, biomedical, and psychophysiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Each chapter will offer a discussion of construct definition, measurement issues, and epidemiological evidence for relations to cardiovascular disease. Chapters on biomedical and psychophysiological risk factors will also describe sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates of these risk factors. Section III will summarize literature on biopsychosocial investigation of specific cardiovascular disease entities, the evidence base for relevant biopsychosocial interventions, and evaluation of the impact of cardiovascular diseases on behavior. Section IV will cover select special topics in the field of cardiovascular behavioral medicine including common comorbidities, special populations, special issues, and data analytic issues.

This volume is unique in several respects. First, there is no similar work available in terms of the scope of topic coverage. Second, the inclusion of relevant measurement issues and construct definitions of a comprehensive set of risk factors will be of great assistance to researchers and clinicians in this area who wish to improve their assessment of these variables yet are not familiar with or trained in the various methodologies. Third, the use of multidisciplinary contributors will greatly enhance the utility of the work.

The primary audiences for this work are multidisciplinary researchers, clinicians, and students in cardiovascular behavioral medicine or behavioral medicine more broadly. Representative disciplines include psychology, psychiatry, medicine, nursing, and epidemiology. The prospective authors listed below represent each of these disciplines.


Section I: Cardiovascular Disease: Background and Biopsychosocial Model
Chapter 1: Cardiovascular Structure and Function (Gottdeiner, Sheps, or Ziegelstein)
Chapter 2: Cardiovascular Disease Classification (Sheps, Bairey-Merz, Ziegelstein, or Hermann-Lingen)
Chapter 3: Biopsychosocial Model of Cardiovascular Disease Pathogenesis (Kaufmann)
Section II: Relations of Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Cardiovascular Disease
Sociodemographic Risk Factors
Chapter 4: Age (Mendes de Leon, Schulz)
Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, Gender Role (Girdler, Light)
Chapter 6: Race, Ethnicity (Thayer, Susmita Parashar)
Chapter 7: Socioeconomic Status (Bosma, Makenback, Siegriest, Marmott, Steptoe)
Behavioral Risk Factors
Chapter 8: Smoking (Glassman)
Chapter 9: Alcohol Consumption (Lovallo)
Chapter 10: Illicit Drug Use (Herning)
Chapter 11: Diet/Nutrition (Wing)
Chapter 12: BMI, Central Obesity, Obesity, Weight Loss (Goldberg)
Chapter 13: Physical Activity/Exercise (King, Sallis, Blumenthal, Weinstein)
Chapter 14: Sleep (Dimsdale, van Diest, Murphy)
Psychosocial Risk Factors
Chapter 15: Personality (Denollet, Costa)
Chapter 16: Negative Emotions: anger, hostility, type A (Suls, Kubzansky)
Chapter 17: Negative Emotions: depression, exhaustion, anxiety (Kop, Davidson, Frasure-Smith)
Chapter 18: Positive Emotions: optimism, resiliency (Matthews, Kubzansky)
Chapter 19: Stress (Gump, Rosengren)
Chapter 20: Social support & Coping (Cohen)
Chapter 21: Racism/discrimination (Brondolo)
Chapter 22: Religion/spirituality (Sloan)
Chapter 23: Neighborhood/context (Kaplan)
Chapter 24: Psychosocial risk aggregation (Smith)
Chapter 25: Adherence (Dunbar-Jacob)
Biomedical Risk Factors
Chapter 26: Genetics (McCafferey, de Geus, Manuck, Williams)
Chapter 27: Blood pressure, Hypertension (Alpert, Dimsdale, Mills, Linden, Julius, Pickering)
Chapter 28: Lipids (Patterson, Stoney)
Chapter 29: Glucose, Insulin, the Metabolic Syndrome (Matthews, Freedland)
Chapter 30: Inflammation, Infection, Hemostasis (Kop, Mills, Miller, Black)
Chapter 31: Oxidative Stress and Novel Biomarkers (e.g., BNP, renal function) (Williams, Kop, Seliger)
Chapter 32: Endothelial Function (NO, etc.) (Sherwood)
Psychophysiological Risk Factors
Chapter 33: SNS hemodynamic and hormonal (E, NE), ECG, T wave alternans (Bonsall, Krantz, Dimsdale, Julius)
Chapter 34: PNS HRV, ECG (Verrier, Dunlap)
Chapter 35: Myocardial Function impedance cardiography, echocardiography (Sherwood, Schneiderman, Krantz, Kop)
Chapter 36: Vascular Function impedance cardiography, PWV, brachial artery reactivity (Sherwood, Treiber)
Chapter 37: HPA axis cortisol, oxytocin (Kirschbaum, Stone)
Chapter 38: Ambulatory monitoring (HR, BP, urine, blood, diary technology) (Krantz, Stone, Kop, Fahrenberg)
Chapter 39: Cardiovascular Reactivity and Recovery (Kamarck, Brosschot, Gerin)
Chapter 40: Allostatic Load (McEwen, Seeman)
Chapter 41: Brain- ANS, Heart, Endocrine, Immue interconnections (Critchley, Lane)
Section III: Biopsychosocial Factors and Interventions in Cardiovascular Diseases
Chapter 42: CAD nonhuman primate & human (Kaplan, Manuck)
Chapter 43: Angina (Mayou, Kuijpers)
Chapter 44: Silent Myocardial Ischemia (Krantz, Blumenthal, Rozanski)
Chapter 45: MI (Muller, Sheps)
Chapter 46: Cardiac Arrythmias/Cardiac Arrest/SCD (Lampert, Verrier, Krantz, Burg)
Chapter 47: CHF (Freedland, Mills, Kop)
Chapter 48: Stroke
Chapter 49: Congenital Heart Disease (Irvine)
Chapter 50: Impact of CVD on psychological function (Sears)
Chapter 51 Impact of CVD on neuropsychological function (Waldstein)
Chapter 52: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (Scheier)
Chapter 53: Heart Transplantation (Bornstein)
Section IV: Special Topics in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine
Common Comorbidities
Chapter 54: Diabetes (Freedland, Matthews)
Chapter 55: HIV/AIDS (Hurwitz)
Chapter 56: Chemotherapy and Cardiotoxicity
Special Population/Special Issues
Chapter 57: Women and CVD (Girdler, Matthews)
Chapter 58: Health Disparities
Chapter 59: Early Childhood and CVD (Chen, Treiber)
Chapter 60: Iatrogenesis, Polypharmacy
Chapter 61: Preventive Cardiology (Wang)
Chapter 62: Bioethics (eg, research, informed consent, medication withholding) (Katzel)
Data Analytic Issues
Chapter 63: Measurement of Change (Babyak, Kamarck)
Chapter 64: Covariate Selection (Mendes de Leon)
Chapter 65: Colinearity (Llabre)
Chapter 66: Clinical Trials (Kramer)
Chapter 67: Meta-Analysis

Shari Waldstein, Ph.D. is an associate professor of psychology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. She received her masters and doctoral degrees in clinical psychology from the University of Pittsburgh and completed her clinical psychology internship at Brown University, with special training in cardiovascular behavioral medicine. Her research program in cardiovascular behavioral medicine combines conceptual and methodological approaches from behavioral medicine, biomedicine, neuropsychology, and psychophysiology. One area of collaborative investigation examines the impact of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular reactivity, and cardiovascular disease on cognitive function and quality of life among older adults. A second area of investigation involves the study of individual differences in the magnitude and patterning of acute cardiovascular responses to mental stress. Dr. Waldstein is recipient of an Early Career Award from the American Psychosomatic Society (APS), an Outstanding Contributions to Health Psychology (Early Career) Award from Division 38 of the American Psychological Association (APA), and a Distinguished Service Award from the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM). She is a Fellow of APA Division 38 (Health Psychology), SBM, and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research. Dr. Waldstein has served as an Associate Editor for the journal Health Psychology, as a member of the APS's Executive Council, as Member-at-Large for Division 38 (Health Psychology) of the APA, and as Chair of the Education and Training Council for the SBM's Board of Directors. Currently, she is president-elect of the American Psychosomatic Society. She has edited one book and has authored or co-authored 54 articles and book chapters.

Willem J. (Wijo) Kop, Ph.D. is an associate professor of medicine (Cardiology) and director of the recently developed Behavioral Cardiology Program at the University of Maryland Medical Center. His research focuses on cardiovascular diseases and other disorders where fatigue plays a major role. Dr. Kop is actively involved in the fields of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine and health psychology. He has served on several NIH review panels and the editorial boards of Health Psychology and Psychosomatic Medicine. Dr. Kop is the recipient of the 1998 Early Career Award of the American Psychosomatic Society and the 2002 Outstanding Contributions to Health Psychology Award from the American Psychological Association.

Leslie Katzel, M.D., Ph.D. is an associate professor of medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. As Associate Director for Clinical of the Baltimore GRECC, Dr. Katzel oversees the GRECC Clinical Demonstration Projects. Dr. Katzel attends on the general medical service at the Baltimore VA Medical Center and is director of the fourth year medical student clinical and research elective in geriatrics and gerontology, as well as director for the research elective in gerontology for medical housestaff. He is recognized for his contributions to the ethical oversight of research conducted at UMB. He lectures frequently on the ethical oversight of research and good clinical practice guidelines, and chairs several safety monitoring boards. At a national level, he serves as a consultant/site visitor for the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP).
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