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This book examines the structural dynamics of HIV among populations at heightened vulnerability to infection as the result of stigma, discrimination and marginalization. It first examines how the socio-structural context shapes HIV risk and how affected populations and national governments and programs have responded to these structural constraints. Chapters focus on structural determinants of HIV risk among transgender women in Guatemala, migrant workers in Mexico, Nigeria and Vietnam, and people who inject drugs in Tanzania. Next, the book examines resilience and community empowerment and mobilization among key populations such as female sex workers in the Dominican Republic and India, and young women and girls in Botswana, Malawi and Mozambique. A third set of chapters explores how national responses to HIV have addressed the role of structural factors in diverse political, geographic and epidemic settings including: Brazil, South Africa, Ukraine and the USA. Ultimately, effective and sustainable responses to HIV among marginalized groups must be grounded in an in-depth understanding of the factors that create vulnerability and risk and impede access to services. Throughout, this book brings together a rigorous social science research perspective with a strong rights-based approach to inform improvements in HIV programs and policies. It offers new insights into how to better address HIV and the health and human rights of historically excluded communities and groups.
Table of contents (10 chapters) Understanding HIV Disparities Among Transgender Women in Guatemala: Linking Social and Structural Factors to HIV Vulnerability Barrington, Clare (et al.) Pages 3-17 From Structural Analysis to Pragmatic Action: The Meso-level Modifiable Social Determinants of HIV Vulnerability for Labor Migrants Hirsch, Jennifer S. (et al.) Pages 19-43 Addressing the Micro- and Macro-Environmental Vulnerabilities to HIV of People Who Inject Drugs in Tanzania: A Case Study of the Muhimbili Medication-Assisted Treatment Clinic Mbwambo, Jessie (et al.) Pages 45-63 No-One-Size-Fits-All: Addressing the Social and Structural Dimensions of Sex Worker Vulnerability to HIV Through Community Mobilization in Avahan Dhungana, Nimesh (et al.) Pages 67-96 Abriendo Puertas: A Multi-level Intervention to Improve HIV Outcomes by Addressing Stigma and Discrimination Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic Kerrigan, Deanna (et al.) Pages 97-114 Multi-level Responses to Multi-level Vulnerabilities: Creating an Enabling Environment for HIV Prevention for Girls in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique Underwood, Carol (et al.) Pages 115-130 Sustaining a Rights-Based Response to HIV in Brazil Murray, Laura (et al.) Pages 133-155 Structural Approaches Are Building Power: South Africas National HIV Response Among Female Sex Workers (19902016) Woznica, Daniel M. (et al.) Pages 157-171 Structural Factors and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy of the USA Valdiserri, Ronald O. (et al.) Pages 173-194 Finding and Reforming the (In)visible State: Nongovernmental Organizations and the Response to HIV in Ukraine Owczarzak, Jill (et al.)